Palm-Leaf Manuscripts of Thailand

Palm leaf manuscripts are an ancient document form that comprises a significant documentary heritage of the Isan people of Northeastern Thailand. These materials contain a vast amount of knowledge that can be classified into eight categories: Buddhism, tradition and beliefs, customary law, economics, traditional medicine, science, liberal arts, and history. Seventy percent of the content recorded in these palm leaf manuscripts consist of Buddhist stories and doctrine; the other 30% record local wisdom in the form of folktales, diaries, poems, ethics, customary law, rites and rituals.

Northeastern Thai palm leaf manuscripts vary in size. A standard palm leaf manuscript is generally 5-6 cm. in width and 50-60 cm. in length with 48 pages (24 leaves written on both sides). Palm leaf manuscripts can be as short as 15 cm. or as long as 80 cm. and can vary as to the number of pages. The people of Isan used the various sizes in different ways: the longer palm leaf manuscripts are used as textbooks to record Buddhist stories and doctrine, while the shorter ones are used as notebooks to record local wisdom related to daily life. The languages used on the palm leaf manuscripts are either local or undergoing shift (Pali, ThaiIsan, Pali-ThaiIsan, Old Thai, and Khmer); in addition, manuscripts are written in four archaic orthographies (ThamIsan, ThaiNoi, Khmer, and Old Thai). Because the length of a palm leaf manuscript is determined by its physical dimensions rather than its content, a single manuscript may record many stories, or a single story may require more than one manuscript. Furthermore, one palm leaf manuscript may be inscribed in various scripts and languages. A one-story palm leaf manuscript might also be inscribed in many literary styles according to the manner in which the inscribers express the story (e.g. outstanding, fine, ordinary, etc.). The oldest palm leaf manuscript available at Khon Kaen University was inscribed in 1794 AD.

In order to preserve both knowledge and the manuscripts themselves, this project is exploring the most suitable method to digitize and organize the palm leaf manuscripts. In providing access to the collection through the web, it also promotes understanding of Isan culture. The Khon Kaen University Palm Leaf Digitization Project is a partnership between The Center for Research on Plurality in the Mekong Region (CERP), Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, and the Office of Culture, Khon Kaen University. This has been an ongoing project since 2004 with funding partly provided by the Southeast Asian Digital Library Project based at Northern Illinois University Libraries.

Suwannahoisang (Fasicle Number 1)
Summary: Once upon a time, there was King Yotsawimon of Phomnakhon city. The king had two queens: the first was Queen Chanthevee and the second was Queen Chanthra. When the two queens were pregnant, the royal astrologer forecasted that Queen Chanthevee will have a son, while Queen Chanthra will have a girl. That made Chanthra very jealous. She planned to slander and drive out Queen Chanthevee. Queen Chanthevee miraculously gave birth to a conch shell. Queen Chanthra took this chance to slander the first queen. Finally, the king drove out Queen Chanthevee to the forest. The queen stayed with an elder couple. One day, she found that her son was a human but lives in a conch shell. She broke the shell and named her son Sang Thong (Golden Conch Shell). When the King learned that he had a son, he was very happy and wanted them back. However, because of the jealousy of Queen Chanthra, mother and son were accused of city misfortune. This time the king floated them on the sea. Mother and son were separated. Queen Chanthevee was helped by a rich man in one city. Prince Sang Thong was adopted by Queen Phanthurat, a queen of giant city. The giantess loved the prince like her real son. She commanded all giants disguise themselves as human. One day the prince recognized that Queen Phanthurat was a giantess. He was scared and decided to leave the city of giants. Before he left, he bathed himself in the golden pond. Then, his body became beautiful like gold. After that, he took a Negrito form with golden shoes and sword. Then, he flew away from the giant city. When Queen Phanthurat realized that Prince Sang Thong ran away, she followed him to get him back. Unfortunately, the young prince was still scared of his foster mother. He made the decision to go and it broke Queen Phanthurat?s heart. Before her death, she gave the prince magical words to call fish and animals. Then, Prince Sang Thong arrived in Paranasi city where the king had seven beautiful daughters. This time the king invited princes from other cities to attend a mate finding ceremony. Six princesses chose six princes from big cities, but the youngest and most beautiful Princess, Rotchana, chose the Prince Sang Thong in the form of a Negrito because she saw a Golden Prince inside. The king was very angry; he expelled the couple to the farm and wanted to eradicate the Negrito. He tried many ways with the six son-in-laws, but failed. When the Inthra recognized what happened with Prince Sang Thong and Princess Rotchana, he decided to help. He challenged the king to play polo for the city. Nobody in the city could fight with the Inthra. There was only the Negrito left. Therefore, the queen asked Princess Rotchana to plead her husband fight for the city. Finally, Prince Sang Thong decided to help. He took his Negrito form off, and then the golden prince was shown to the people. He wore the golden shoes, and then flew into the sky to fight with the Intra. He won the game and the Inthra went back to the heaven. The king was very happy and gave Prince Sang Thong a throne. When King Yotsavimon learned the truth from the Inthra, he looked for Queen Chanthevee and they traveled together to see Prince Sang Thong. The queen applied to be a female cook in the palace. One day, she cooked for the Prince Sang Thong. She told their story by carving the squash and put it in the curry. The prince knew at once that the cook was his mother. At the end, he followed his parents and came back to the throne of Phomnakhon city., No. of Pages: 40; No. of Fasicles: 1 Script: Tham Isan, This item digitized and made available online with funds provided by United States Department of Education, TICFIA (Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information) Grant P337A05006.
Thao Linthong
Summary: Thao Linjong the governor of Kanthang or Kanthathirat, the city was very peaceful in under his governs. Thao Linjong has a son name Thao Singto or Thao Linthong who was very heartless and cruel. The governor realized that if he let his son administrated the city it would be disaster. When Thao Linjong known what his father though, he was very angry and commanded his father appointed him to be a governor. But the father refused, then the son tortured the father by imprison him in the dark jail, flog him, and did not give him some food and drink. Even the mother tried to ask him free the father, but he did not listen. Thao Linjong could not endure suffering, he died. Before he died, Thao Linjong made a wish that he himself who is a good governor would reborn in a peaceful place, but who himself a cruel governor, has no virtue, and no truthfulness he would be in disaster situations. The mother was very depressed with the dead of her husband, she blamed her son. Thao Linthong was very angry, he killed his mother. Then Thao Linthong governed the city. Under his govern, there were unhappiness every where. The astrologer told him that because he made a bad kammar it cause him in this situation. He must expiate his sins by building the statue of Buddha, and donate on behalf of his parents. Thao Linthong build 2 Buddha statues, however, the anxious still be with him. Suddenly he became ill. The astrology from Phimai city was stop by and gave him a prediction. He said Thao Linthong will die in 7 days. Thao Linthong was very angry, he commanded killing the astrologer, but the officers asked for the astrologer.s life. The astrology continue spoke that to reduce his anxious Thao Linthong need to build a golden Buddha statue in Lila posture and build ubosot cover the Buddha statue. Unfortunately, his kammar was really bad; he could not finish the Buddha statue. Therefore, he made a wish before he die that the golden Buddha statue could not see by anyone. Who could see the golden Buddha statue must me in a disaster situation and dead. From that time, nobody came to that area, because they afraid of the curse., No. of Pages: 260; No. of Fascicles: 1 Script: Tham Isan Physical Condition: Missing some pages, This item digitized and made available online with funds provided by United States Department of Education, TICFIA (Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information) Grant P337A05006.
Thao Chansamut
Summary: Chanthasamut was an orphan young man. He lived with the king's gardener. At the King's town there was a big hole which has a fragrance blow out. The king would like to know what was inside the hole. However, nobody was brave to explore the hole, except Chanthasamut. The king commanded to build a metal cradle and metal chain deliver him there. At the bottom of the hole, there was a big town. Here in this town, Chanthasamut got five magic things. There were a magic marble, a magic gourd, a magic axe, a magic sword, and magic leather. He lived with the king's gardener to found out where the fragrance came from. When he knew it came from the princess' hair he asked the gardener asked for the fragrance hair princess in marriage. The gardener realized that Chanthasamut was not handsome; therefore she reformed him as a good looking man. When the princess and Chanthasamut met, they fell in love with each other. Nevertheless, the king not allowed the princess marries Chanthasamut. The King said, if we he would like to marry the princess he must fight for her. Chanthasamut won the war and get married with the princess. Chanthasamut stayed here for long, one day he would like to get back to the town he came from. He brought the princess back to the metal cradle to lift them up. Then the princess' cloth was fell, thus Chanthasamut got back into the hole to bring it for her. Suddenly, the cradle was brought up. The soldier brought the princess to the king. Nevertheless, he could not touch her because her body was hot like fire. Chanthasamut tried to find the way to get back to the upper town. Then he met the birds, and they brought him up and left him on the river bank. Chanthasamut got back to town by the junk. And then he lived with the king's gardener gain. When the princess knew the coming back of her husband, she ran a way from the king to stay with him. The king was very angry, and he would like to get her back; therefore he arranged the troops to fight for her. But he lost the war because could not fight the five magic things which Chanthasamut got from the princess town. At the end, the king gave Chanthasamut the haft of his territory. Since then, Chanthasamut and the fragrance hair princess lived happiness until the end of their life., No. of Pages: 121 No. of Fascicles: 1 Script: Tham Isan, This item digitized and made available online with funds provided by United States Department of Education, TICFIA (Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information) Grant P337A05006.
Thao Pha Deang
Summary: Phadaeng Nang Ai is a tragic love triangle story of King Phadaeng, Princess Aikham, and the Naga Prince, Phangkhi. The story tells of Princess Aikham, the daughter of King Ek-Thita and Queen Sida of the ancient Khmer Empire. She fell in love with King Phadaeng of Phaphong city. Their secret love was never recognized, as King Phadaeng failed to win the rocket contest in Bun Bangfai, the rocket festival organized by the Khmer king. At the same time, the Naga Prince Phangkhi was deeply in love with Princess Aikham without her knowledge. During the rocket festival, he came in disguise as a young man to take a glimpse at her beauty. Later, he came in disguise as a white squirrel wearing a bell to attract her attention. Seeing the squirrel, Aikham wished to have it as her pet, but she ordered the court hunter to shoot it for her with a poisoned arrow. The squirrel died, but he made a wish that his meat be deliciously aromatic and plentiful for all to enjoy. So, Aikham shared the meat of the squirrel with everyone in her city, save for the widows as they had no husbands to work for the king's army. When the Naga King Suttho received the news of his son being killed by the Khmer hunter, he led the naga army to kill everyone in the Khmer kingdom, particularly those who had eaten the squirrel meat. For those who did not eat the meat, the Naga King left them alone. Phadaeng heard about this disaster and came to rescue his lover, Princess Aikham, but in vain. The Naga King threw his tail to wrap the princess and pull her down to live in the Badan, the naga city. Phadaeng ended his life. He became the ghost king and organized a ghost army to fight for Aikham in Badan. The battle went on and on until Indra came to stop the fight and told everyone involved waiting for the next Buddha, Phra Si-aan, to judge as to whom Princess Aikham belonged. (Translated by Wajuppa Tossa), No. of Pages: 194; No. of Fascicles: 1 Script: Tham Isan Physical Condition: Missing some pages, This item digitized and made available online with funds provided by United States Department of Education, TICFIA (Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information) Grant P337A05006.
Champa Si Ton
Summary: There was a city named Chak Khin. One day, there was a disaster that happened in the city. A couple of giant hawks came to the city and hunted the people as their food. The king of the city tried many ways to kill them, but he lost. The king decided to hide his beloved daughter, named Patthumma, inside the big drum in the royal palace. Finally, everybody was eaten by the giant hawks. Thao Chunlanee, the king of Panjanakhon came into a forest to hunt. He got lost and got into the destroyed Chak Khin city where skeletons could be found everywhere. Then, he found the drum and hit it. Suddenly he found Nang Patthumma. He named her Nang Kham Klong (a drum). He took her back to his city and married her as a second queen. Later, Nang Patthumma gave birth to the quadruplet princes. Nang Akkhi, the first queen of Thao Chunlanee, was very jealous. She brought dogs in to replace the princes and slandered Nang Patthumma had a relationship with a dog. Then, Thao Chunlanee commanded to exile Nang Patthumma. She suffered very much. As for the quadruplet princes, Nang Akkhi floated them down the river. The four princes landed on a flower garden. The gardener burned their bodies at the funeral pyre and then four Champa trees grew up. Nang Akkhi knew this and she commended to pull out that Champa trees and again floated them down a river. Then, the Champa trees landed on the hermit's residence. The hermit made a wish to bring them back to be human and he taught them magic. Afterwards, the four princess left the hermit to come back home. On the way back, there were many adventures. Finally, they found their mother and brought her back to the city to see the King Chunlanee, and told him what had happened. At the end, the king and the queen were happy together, while Nang Akkhi was sent to be a slave., No. of Pages: 710; No. of Fascicles: 1 Script: Thai Noi Physical Condition: Missing some pages, This item digitized and made available online with funds provided by United States Department of Education, TICFIA (Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information) Grant P337A05006.
Phaya Khankhak
Summary: When the Lord Buddha was in his bodhisatta incarnation as King of the Toads Phaya Khang Khak and married to Udon Khuruthawip, his sermons drew everyone, creatures and sky-dwellers alike, away from Phaya Thaen, King of the Sky. Angry Phaya Thaen withheld life-giving rains from the earth for seven years, seven months and seven days. Acting against the advice of the Toad King, Phaya Naga, Phayanak King of the Naga (and personification of the Mekong) declared war on Phaya Thaen -- and lost. Persuaded to assume command, King Toad enlisted the aid of termites to build mounds reaching to the heavens; venomous scorpions and centipedes to attack Phaya Thaen's feet; and hornets for air support. Aerial warfare against Phaya Thaen in his own element had proved futile; but even the Sky must come down to the ground: on the ground the war was won, and Phaya Thaen sued for peace. Naga Rockets fired in the air at the end of the hot, dry season are not to threaten Phaya Thaen, but only serve to remind him of his treaty obligations made to Lord Bodhisatta Phaya Khang Khok, King of the Toads, down on the ground. For his part Phaya Nak was rewarded by being given the duty of Honor Guard at most Thai and Lao temples. After the harvest of the resulting crops, man-sized kites with a strung bow are staked out in winter monsoon winds to signal Phaya Thaen that he has sent enough rain. This English version from Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocket_Festival), No. of Pages: 200 No. of Fascicles: 1 Script: Tham Isan, This item digitized and made available online with funds provided by United States Department of Education, TICFIA (Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information) Grant P337A05006.
Thao Ma Yui
Summary: There was town named Kusawadee. The king has two sons, and one daughter. The big brother was a dog, named Thao MaYui. When the king married a new queen, she tried to kill Thao MaYui.s brother to still the throne form him. She did not worry about Thao MaYui because he was a dog and could not be the king. One day, the queen asked the second prince go for a walk in the garden with her. She pushed him down in to the abyss, but luckily he stuck in a vine. When Thao MaYui found that his brother was missing, he looked for him and finally found and helped him form the danger. Then, the two brothers decided to leave the town. They went to Himmaphan forest; right there they met the hermit and asked him to be there master. Afterward, at Kusawadee city, there was a giant came to eat the citizen. He said that, the king must give him 100 people a day. Then, it came to the youngest princess who was Thao MaYui sister. The hermit known by his meditative absorption, he told Thao MaYui and his brother. Then, the two brothers flew back to the city to fight with the giant, and finally won. Thoa MaYui brought the life back to his people. Finally, the people asked him to be a king., No. of Pages: 230; No. of Fascicles: 1 Script: Tham Isan Physical Condition: Missing some pages, This item digitized and made available online with funds provided by United States Department of Education, TICFIA (Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information) Grant P337A05006.
Prathom Somphot (A12)
No. of Pages: 464 No. of Fascicles: 18 Script: Tham Isan, The life of the Lord Buddha; science the Buddha was born, enlighten, and nirvana -- final release from the round of rebirth., This item digitized and made available online with funds provided by United States Department of Education, TICFIA (Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information) Grant P337A05006.
Thoranisan
No. of Pages: 98 No. of Fascicles: 1 Script: Tham Isan Physical Condition: Incomplete, missing some pages, This palm leaf describes ritual about agriculture and the agriculture ceremonies., This item digitized and made available online with funds provided by United States Department of Education, TICFIA (Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information) Grant P337A05006.
Suwannasang (Fasicle no 1)
Summary: One upon the time there was King Yotsawimon, king of Phomnakhon city. The king had two queens, the first queen was Queen Chanthevee the second queen was Queen Chanthra. When the two queens were pregnant, the royal astrologer forecasted that Queen Chanthevee will have a son, while Queen Chanthra will have a girl. That made Chanthra very jealous. She planed to slander and drive out queen Chantra. Queen Chanthevee, one day, miraculously gave birth to a conch shell, thus Queen Chantra took this chance to slandered the first quuen, finally the king drove out Queen Chantra to the forest. The queen stayed with the elder couple. One day she found that her son is a human but live in conch shell. She broke the shell and named her son Sang Thong (Golden Conch Shell). When the King knew that he had a son, he was very happy and wanted them back. However, because of the jealousy of Queen Chanthra, mother and son were accused of city misfortune. This time the king floated them on the sea, and mother and son was separated. Queen Chanthevee was helped by the rich man at one city. Prince Sang Thong was adopted by Queen Phanthurat a queen of giant city. The giantess loved the prince like her real son. She commanded all giants disguise as human. One day the prince recognized that Queen Phanthurat is a giantess. He scared and decided to leave the city of giant. Before he left, he bathe himself in the golden pond. Then, his body was beautiful like gold. After that, he took a Negrito form, golden shoes, and sword. Then he flew away for the giant city. When Queen Phanthurat realized that Prince Sang thong ran away, she followed him to take him back. Unfortunately, the young prince still scared his foster mother. He made a decision to go, it broke Queen Phanthurat heart. Before her dead she gave the prince the magical words to calling fish and animal. Then Prince Sang Thong arrive Paranasi city where the king has seven beautiful daughters. That time the king invited the princes from other cities to attend a mate finding ceremony. Six princesses chose six princes from big cities, but the youngest and most beautiful Princess Rotchana chose the Prince Sang Thong in a form of Negrito because she saw a Golden Prince inside. The king was very angry; he expelled the couple to the farm. And want to eradicate the Negrito. He tried many ways with the six son-in-laws, but fail. When the Inthra recognized what happen with Prince Sang Thong and Princess Rotchana, he decided to help. He challenged the king to play polo for the city. Nobody in the city could fight with the Inthra. There was only a Negrito left. Therefore, the queen asked Princess Rotchana to plead her husband fight for the city. Finally, Prince Sang Thong decided to help. He took a Negrito form off, and then the golden prince was appeared to people. He wore the golden shoes, then flew to the sky to fight with the Intra. He won the game and the Inthra went back to the heaven. The king was very happy and gave Prince Sang Thong a throne. When King Yotsavimon knew the truth from the Inthra, he looked for Queen Chanthevee and travel together to see Prince Sang Thong. The queen applied to be a female cook in the palace. One day, she cooked for the Prince Sang Thong. She told their story by carving the squash and put them in the curry. The prince knew at once that the cook is his mother. At the end he followed his parent came back to the throne of Phomnakhon city., No. of Pages: 33; No. of Fasicles: 1 Script: Tham Isan, This item digitized and made available online with funds provided by United States Department of Education, TICFIA (Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information) Grant P337A05006.
Siawsawat (Fasicle Number 3 )
Summary: Siawsawat is a doctrine literature which the content include the main story and short folk tales. There was a millionaire family with two sons name Srisaliaw and Siawsawat. When the two grew up as the young men, the father gave them the houses. Srisaliaw, the elder brother, chose the finished house, while Siawsawat, the younger brother, chose the unfinished house. The father suddenly knew that his younger son, Siawsawat, is a wise man and will be successful in his life. The father taught his sons very well, guided them live their life, follow the custom, be generous, don't be lazy, persevere in studies, don't be a friend with the uncertain people, and believe in the parent words. However, the parent doctrine cannot be equivalent to the teaching of the Lord Buddha. Wise man will not live in the bad environment; because the environment shapes a man. Men should leave in a good place. After the parent passed away, the two brothers kept behaving and follow their parent words. One day, there was junk from Champa city that arrived at the port of their city. Siawsawat asked the merchant to travel with them. The merchant loved him like his son. On the trade way, Siawsawat often had strength questions in the crews' eyes. They thought that Siawsawat was insane. His questions, for example, were, "Is there any stone in the islet?", "Are there any people in the city?", and "Is there any wood in the forest?" When the merchant arrived home, he told his family about Siawsawat and his behavior and his questions. Nang Siwai, a beautiful daughter of the merchant then knew the meaning of Siawsawat's questions. The question "Is there any stone in the islet?" means "Is there any valuable stone in the islet". The question "Are there any people in the city?" means "Is there any wisemen in the city". "Is there any wood in the forest?" means "Is there any valuable wood in the forest". Then, the merchant realized that Siawsawat is a wise man, so he married him to his daughter, Nang Siwan. The king of Champa city, who has a bad virtue, has always thought that somebody wants to kill him. Every night, he orders 500 people to protect him. If anybody falls asleep, he will command a killing of that person and forfeiture of their property. One day, that duty turned to the merchant.s (Siawsawat's father-in-law). He knew that he will be killed by the king like other people who used to be in this duty. Thus, he gave all his properties to his daughter and his son-in-law. But, Siawsawat did not accept. He volunteered to do the duty for his father-in-law. At the palace, while he was on sentry, he was reciting very loud. That made the king change his mind every time he wanted to kill security guard. The next day, he had a chance to meet the king and told him the Buddha teaching through the folk tales reflect his behaviors. The king realized that Siawsawat is a wise man. He changed to have virtues of the king. He appointed Siawsawat to be a great master teaching his citizens. Afterward, Champa city changed to be a peaceful city, where the ruler and the citizens have virtues., No. of Pages: 251; No. of Fasicles: 6 Script: Tham Isan, This item digitized and made available online with funds provided by United States Department of Education, TICFIA (Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information) Grant P337A05006.
NamgTang-Orn (Fasicle no 4)
Summary: At Nakhonkhiri city, there was a king name Phrayakosri and the queen name Thongdang. They have a son name Thao Mahawong who was very infatuated with cockfighting. One day, he went to a forest with four noblemans to find a new fighting cock. He met a daughter of the great crocodile name Nag Thang-Orn who has a body like human. He married her to be his wife. Later on, Nang Thang-Orn gave birth to baby boy. That time Thoa Mahawong went to the forest to find an elephant. Because of the jealousy of other wives of Thao Mahawong, they alternated the prince with baby crocodile and floated the prince on the river. The angel brought him to look after in haven and named him Suriyong. Back to Thqo Mahawong, when he knew that Nag Thang-Orn gave birth to a baby crocodile he was very angry and droved her out of the city. She went back to her city to stay with her brother, King Khumpha who stayed on the throne after their father. King Khumpha felt pity for his sister. He decided to give the throne to other brother. Then he brought his sister left the city to practice martial art and incantation from the hermit in the forest. He intended to revenge his brother-in-law for his sister. For prince Suriyong, when he grew up he learned and practiced many subjects, and came back to help his mother. He married four ladies Nang Prathumma, Nang Inthawong, Nang Yardkham, and Nang Khamlai. Later, he was a king of Nakhonkhiri city., No. of Pages: 239; No. of Fasicles: 5 Script: Tham Isan, This item digitized and made available online with funds provided by United States Department of Education, TICFIA (Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information) Grant P337A05006.
Pajittee
No. of Pages: 16 No. of Fascicles: 1 Script: Tham Isan, This palm leaf contains rules for monks; smaller section, Mahawak, Pajittee., This item digitized and made available online with funds provided by United States Department of Education, TICFIA (Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information) Grant P337A05006.
Prathom Somphot (A2)
No. of Pages: 464 No. of Fascicles: 18 Script: Tham Isan, The life of the Lord Buddha; science the Buddha was born, enlighten, and nirvana -- final release from the round of rebirth., This item digitized and made available online with funds provided by United States Department of Education, TICFIA (Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information) Grant P337A05006.
Prathom Somphot (A4)
No. of Pages: 464 No. of Fascicles: 18 Script: Tham Isan, The life of the Lord Buddha; science the Buddha was born, enlighten, and nirvana -- final release from the round of rebirth., This item digitized and made available online with funds provided by United States Department of Education, TICFIA (Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information) Grant P337A05006.